Paul Robert Appleby, Ph.D.

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Paul Robert Appleby, Ph.D. received his doctorate in Social Psychology in 1999 from the University of Southern California. Currently Dr. Appleby is an Assistant Professor (research) in the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California. Dr. Appleby’s research and publications have focused on HIV prevention and drug use prevention among youth and adults. As Principal Investigator for a State of California Universitywide AIDS Research Program (UARP) funded grant, his research focused on the effects of methamphetamine on risky sex for MSM. Dr. Appleby has also conducted HIV research among diverse populations including at-risk women of color and heterosexual college students. Dr. Appleby is a Co-Investigator on NIDA funded research at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles that is looking at sexual and drug taking risk among young MSM. Dr. Appleby is also interested in using new technology such as interactive video for HIV and drug prevention programs. As part of a collaborative effort with Lynn Miller at the Annenberg School for Communication he produced interactive videos (IAVs) as a cutting edge youth oriented approach to HIV prevention. This NIAID funded grant is currently evaluating the effectiveness of these IAVs. As Co-Investigator on NIMH funded research, he is collaborating on the development of serious games using a socially optimized learning in virtual environments (SOLVE) approach also with Lynn Miller. Dr Appleby is a Co-Investigator on NIDA funded research (PI Stephen J. Read) looking at risk taking among three groups of MSM from non-risk takers (those who practice safer sex and do not use drugs) to high risk takers (methamphetamine users who engage in unprotected sex) using fMRI scans to examine brain differences between these groups in reaction to risk choices and sexual arousal.

Publications:

Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., Christensen, J. L., Godoy, C., Si, M., Corsbie-Massay,C., Read,S. J., & Marsella, S., Anderson, A. N., & Klatt, J. (in press). Virtual Interactive Interventions for Changing Risky Sex: Adaptations, Integrations, and Innovations. In S. M. Noar and N. G. Harrington (Eds.) eHealth applications: Promising strategies for health behavior change. New York: Routledge.

Appleby, P.R., Christensen, J.L., Miller, L.C., Read, S.J., Anderson, A.N. (2011). Developing tailored interventions in 3D games to reduce methamphetamine and HIV risk behavior, 41(Supplement), s194.

Appleby, P. R., Briano, M., Christensen, J. L., Anderson, A. N., Storholm, E. D., Ananias, D. K., Miller, L. C., & Ayala, A. (2010). The disparate roles of ethnicity and sexual orientation in predicting methamphetamine use and related beliefs and behaviors among MSM. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39(Supplement), s52

Miller, L. C., Christensen, J. L., Godoy, C. G., Appleby, P. R., Corsbie-Massay, C., & Read, S. J. (2009). Reducing risky decision-making in the virtual and in the real-world: Serious Games, Intelligent Agents, and a SOLVE Approach. In U. Ritterfeld, M. Cody, P. Vorderer (Eds.) Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Routledge/LEA Press.

Appleby, P. R., Godoy, C. G., Miller, L. C., & Read, S. J. (2008). Reducing risky sex through the use of interactive video technology. In T. Edgar, S. M. Noar, & V. S. Freimuth (Eds.) Communication perspectives on HIV/AIDS for the 21st century (pp.379-384). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Taylor & Francis Group.

Read, S. J., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., Nwosu, M. E., Reynaldo, S., Lauren, A., & Putcha, A. (2006). Socially optimized learning in a virtual environment: Reducing risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men. Human Communication Research, 32, 1-34.

Appleby, P. R., Marks, G., Ayala, A., Miller, L. C., Murphy, S., & Mansergh, G. (2005). Consideration of future consequences and unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men. Journal of Homosexuality, 50 (1), 119-133.

Hyde, J., Appleby, P. R., Weiss, G., Bailey, J., & Morgan, X. (2005). Group-level interventions for persons living with HIV: A catalyst for individual change. AIDS Education and Prevention, 17, Suppl. A, 53-65.

Rader, M., Marks, G., Mansergh, G., Crepaz, N., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., & Murphy, S. (2001). Preferences about the characteristics of future HIV prevention products among men who have sex with men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 13(2), 149-159.

Appleby, P. R. (2001). Predictors of homosexism. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61(9- B), 5050, (UMI No. AAI9987575).

Crepaz, N., Marks, G., Mansergh, G., Murphy, S., Miller, L. C., & Appleby, P. R. (2000). Age- related risk for HIV infection in men who have sex with men: Examination of behavioral, relationship, and serostatus variables. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12 (5), 405-415.

Mansergh, G., Marks, G., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., & Murphy, S. (2000). Is ‘knowing people with HIV/AIDS’ associated with safer sex in men who have sex with men? AIDS, 14, 1845-1851.

Marks, G., Mansergh, G., Crepaz, N., Murphy, S., Miller, L. C., & Appleby, P. R. (2000). Future HIV prevention options for men who have sex with men: Intention to use a potential microbicide during anal intercourse. AIDS and Behavior, 4 (3), 279-287.

Appleby, P. R., Miller, L. C., & Rothspan, S. (1999). The paradox of trust for male couples: When risking is a part of loving. Personal Relationships, 6, 81-93.

Appleby, P. R. (1996). Rationalizing risk: Sexual behavior of gay male couples. Masters Abstracts International, 34/04, 1696, (UMI No. AAT1378395).

Invited Lectures:

Appleby, P. R. (2010, April). Virtual Environments: Interactive Video and Serious Games for HIV and Methamphetamine Prevention among Men who have Sex with Men. Charles Drew University Cross-Disciplinary Key Note Lecture, Los Angeles, CA.

Appleby, P. R. & Christensen, J. L. (2005, July) Planning, administrating, producing, and editing Interactive Video: The devil's in the details. Invited lecture given at CHIPTS (UCLA) meeting, Los Angeles, CA.

Appleby, P. R. (2005, March) Virtual Sex Project –An HIV Intervention. Invited lecture given at CHIPTS (UCLA) meeting, Los Angeles, CA.

Appleby, P. R. (1996, Spring). The Paradox of Trust: How Gay Male Couples Rationalize Risky Sex. Lecture presented as part of a series of intercampus forums on AIDS-related topics at the University of Southern California.

Conference Papers:

Appleby, P. R., Miller, L. C., & Christensen, J. L. (2010, June). A SOLVE prevention intervention using interactive video: Evidence of immediate enhancement of MSM’s condom use and methamphetamine avoidance intentions, beliefs, and self-efficacy. Paper presented at the 18th annual meeting of the Society for Prevention Research. Denver, CO.

Miller, L. C., Read, S. J., Appleby, P. R., Christensen, J. L., Corsbie-Massay, C., & Godoy, C. G. (February, 2009). Socially Optimized Learning in Virtual Environments (SOLVE): Technology-Enabling Test-Beds for Theory, Intervention Application, and Dissemination…and back again. Lewin’s Legacy: Social Psychologists Can Make a Difference, “if the theorist does not look towards applied problems with highbrow aversion.” Panel session at 10th annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Tampa, FL.

Christensen, J. L., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., Corsbie-Massay, C., Godoy, C. G., Read, S. J. (2007, May). Negative Affective Reactions to an HIV-Prevention Intervention: Impact on Subsequent Sexual Risk-Taking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men. Paper presented at the annual convention of the International Communication Association. San Francisco, CA.

Godoy, C. G., Appleby, P. R., Christensen, J. L., Miller, L. C., & Read, S. J. (2007, May). Using Virtual Environments to Unobtrusively Measure Real Life Risk-Taking: Findings and Implications from a Health Communication Perspective. Paper presented at the annual convention of the International Communication Association. San Francisco, CA.

Appleby, P. R. & Godoy, C. G. (2006, June) TV Spaces and Trade Offs: The Boundaries of Homogeneity in Homo-Erotic Encounters. Panel discussion given at the International Communication Association Conference, Dresden, Germany.

Appleby, P. R., Christensen, J. L., Godoy, C. G. (2005, May) Planning, administrating, producing, and editing Interactive Video: The devil's in the details. Panel discussion given at the International Communication Association Conference, New York, NY.

Murphy, S., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., Marks, G., & Mansergh, G. (1999, August). Findings from the Hollywood study. Paper presented at the National HIV Prevention Conference, Atlanta, Georgia.

Conference Presentations (partial list):

Christensen, J. L., Appleby, P. R., Ananias, D. K., Miller, L. C., Corsbie-Massay, C., & Read, S. J. (2009, February). Expecting the Worst: The Link Between Risky Decision-Making and the Perceived Probability of Feared Future Selves. Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Tampa, FL.

Godoy, C. G., Appleby, P. R., Miller, L. C., Christensen, J. L., Read, S. J., & Corsbie-Massay, C. (2008, March). Been There, Done That: Virtual Risk-Taking and the Theory of Planned Behavior. Society of Behavioral Medicine Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA.

Godoy, C. G., Christensen, J. L., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., Corsbie-Massay, C., & Read, S. J.(2008, March). Guilty Pleasures: Using Virtual Environments to Reduce Risk-Taking. Society of Behavioral Medicine Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA.

Christensen, J. L., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., Corsbie-Massay, C., Godoy, C. G., Read, S. J. (2008, February). When It’s Good to Feel Bad: How Responses to Virtual Environments Predict Real-Life Risk-Taking. Poster session for Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM.

Appleby, P. R., Storholm, E. D., Ayala, A., & Miller, L. C. (2007, May) Methamphetamine and risky decision making among men who have sex with men. Poster session presented at the 19th annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, D.C.

Godoy, C. G., Appleby, P. R., Miller, L. C., & Read, S. J. (2007, May) Adult attachment and high risk sexual behavior among MSM. Poster session presented at the 19th annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, D. C.

Godoy, C. G., Appleby, P. R., Christensen, J. L., Miller, L. C., & Read, S. J. (2007, May). Measuring Risk-Taking in Virtual Environments: A New Method for Predicting Past and Future Real-Life Risk-Taking Behavior. Poster presented at the Annenberg Workshop on Games for Learning, Development, & Change. Annenberg School for Communication. University of Southern California. Los Angeles, CA.

Christensen, J. L., Miller, L. C., Godoy, C. G., Appleby, P. R., Corsbie-Massay, C., Read, S. J. (2007, May). Using Virtual Environments to Reduce Real-Life Sexual Risk-Taking: The Impact of Interactivity and Negative Affect. Annenberg Workshop on Games for Learning, Development, & Change. Annenberg School for Communication. University of Southern California. Los Angeles, CA.

Godoy, C. G., Appleby, P. R., Miller, L. C., & Read, S. J. (2006, August). Interactive video(IAV) as an unobtrusive measure of high risk taking among MSM populations uncomfortable with direct discussions of their sexual behavior. Poster presented at the International AIDS Conference, Toronto, Canada.

Christensen, J. L., Appleby, P. R., & Godoy, C. G. (2006, June). Towards a Coherence of Multiple Identities. Panel discussion given at the International Communication Association. Dresden, Germany.

Godoy, C. G., Christensen, J. L., & Appleby, P. R. (2006, June). Future Directions: Improving Gay and Bisexual Male Identities through Media. Panel discussion given at the International Communication Association. International Communication Association. Dresden, Germany.

Godoy, C. G., Appleby, P. R., Miller, L. C., & Read, S. J. (2005, June). Sexual Risk Taking Scripts among a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Young MSM. Poster presented at the Institute for the Society of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (ISSTDR), Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Appleby, P. R. (2002, February). Why methamphetamine contributes to risky sex for MSM. Poster session presented at the Universitywide AIDS Research Program 19th Annual Investigators’ Meeting, 5th Annual Conference on AIDS Research in California, Sacramento, CA.

Murphy, S., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., Marks, G., & Mansergh, G. (1998, June). Antiretroviral drugs and sexual behavior in gay and bisexual men: When optimism enhances risk. Poster session presented at the 12th World AIDS Conference, Geneva, Switzerland.

Appleby, P. R., Rothspan, S., Read, S. J., Miller, L. C., Marcolina, K., & Adams, D. (1996). Gay Men’s Interactive Video. Poster session presented at the Universitywide AIDS Research Program 13th Annual Investigators’ Meeting.

Rothspan, S., Appleby, P. R., & Miller, L. C. (1995, July). Breaking the Routine: Gay Couples’ responses to hypothetical changes in condom use. Poster session presented at the Conference of the American Psychological Society, New York, NY.

Appleby, P. R., Rothspan, S., Miller, L. C. (1994, April). Rationalizing Risk: Sexual Behavior of Gay Male Couples. Poster session presented at the 74th Western Psychological Association Conference, Kona, HA.

Appleby, P. R., Rothspan, S., Miller, L. C. (1994, February). Gay Couples Study. Poster session presented at the Universitywide AIDS Research Program 11th Annual Investigators’ Meeting.


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